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What is RAID 5 and how is it used?

Do you want to set up a RAID system but aren't sure where to begin?

In general, hard drives fail at a rate of up to 5 percent per year, and older servers fail at a rate of up to 19 percent per year. When working on a server with several hard disks, a failure can result in a lengthy period of time spent waiting for previously backed up data to be restored.

This can have a significant impact on productivity and can result in irate users and dissatisfied customers.

Not to worry, there's a simple solution called RAID 5 that can help. Although RAID 5 may appear to be a complicated concept, it is essentially a technique that is utilized to keep data stored safely and easily accessible.

What is the operation of RAID 5?

The solution is a little difficult to give. When it comes to RAID 5, one of the difficulties is that it is tough to comprehend. In many papers, rich vocabulary and complicated computations are used to bog down an already complex topic.

What Exactly Is RAID?

For the sake of understanding RAID, let us first define what RAID is.

"Redundant Array of Independent Disks" (RAID) is an abbreviation that stands for "Redundant Array of Independent Disks."

This means that a RAID system has an array of disks, or a number of disks, that are all treated as a single device by the operating system. Furthermore, the redundancy feature ensures that data is stored on each drive in the array, providing an additional level of assurance that the information on each disk is secure.

This implies that even if your hard disk fails, you will not lose any of your information. As a result of combining multiple hard drives into a single array, more disk space is available and access times are faster.

What is RAID 5 and how does it work?

From RAID 0 (which does not provide data redundancy) to RAID 10 (which provides good performance at the expense of available disk space), there are many different RAID types that can meet any number of your personal or commercial requirements.

RAID 5 is the type of RAID we'll be talking about today, however. RAID 5 enables you to have the best of both worlds - it enables you to combine excellent data throughput and data security with a low cost of ownership. RAID 5 is a one-of-a-kind variant of RAID that makes advantage of a feature known as RAID parity. This technique makes use of parity information to determine whether or not any information has been lost.

In a RAID, parity is divided among all of the disks in the array. In order to store the parity information, RAID 5 takes around one free drive worth of space. You might be wondering, how do you calculate missing data when there is none? We'll go into more detail about it later, but think of it as a 200-piece puzzle that is missing only one piece of the puzzle. We could all see in our thoughts what the puzzle would look like at this point... If it were complete, we could utilize context clues, such as the colors surrounding empty space, to guess what was supposed to go in that space. This is how Parity works: it uses context hints to "make up" for the data that is missing.

One additional way to look about it is as a mathematical problem, such as an algebra problem. Consider the following equation: 5+Y=8, where Y represents data that has been lost, 5 represents data that has been stored on the drive and can be read, and 8 represents parity that has been placed on the drive and has been calculated to aid with redundancy prevention. If we solve for Y, we can recover the data that was lost, which equals 3, and we can reassemble the problem in the same way as RAID 5 reassembles information.

What is the procedure for calculating Raid 5 space?

Having learned how parity works, you can proceed to learning how it is calculated. You may believe that this makes calculating how much space you will require much simpler. Problem is, the raw amount of disk space that is available to the operating system is never the amount of space that is displayed on the drive's informational display. The reason for this is that after a RAID array is constructed, initialized, and formatted, it results in a capacity loss of between 5 percent and 10 percent of the total RAID capacity. It is possible that formatting from the operating system will further reduce the amount of space that is useable, making calculations more difficult. Reduce the amount of space available on the drive by 15 percent to get an idea of how much space you'll need for your RAID 5 arrangement.

RAID 5 has a number of additional advantages.

One of the key advantages of adopting RAID 5 is that it only requires three hard drives, whereas many other types of RAID, such as 10 and 6, may necessitate the use of a significantly greater number of hard drives.

Because RAID 5 makes advantage of parity for storage, it has more usable disk space than any previous version of the RAID technology available. RAID 5 is an excellent choice for storing vast amounts of data that is not updated frequently, such as backups or video footage. It is also possible to use a large number of smaller SSD Drives and put them in a RAID 5 configuration to obtain the maximum amount of storage for a fraction of the cost.

Logical data loss on RAID

  • Firmware Update Failed
  • Configuration of the RAID controller deleted
  • Deleting folders and files
  • Deleting share folders
  • RAID formatting
  • RAID accidentally disbanded
  • Loss of array data
  • Loss of the order of the hard disks
  • Encrypted volume damaged
  • Accidental deletion of the array volume
  • Virus attack, Trojan horse

Symptoms of RAID failure

  • Shares not accessible
  • In degraded mode Read only
  • Invalid RAID volume
  • Critical state of the array / composite
  • Network share disappeared
  • RAID offline
  • RAID critical
  • RAID is reported as degraded
  • Storage - compound offline
  • Symptoms of RAID failure
  • volume crashed
  • Volume crashed / lost

Mechanical damage to RAID

  • Bad Blocks or defective sectors
  • Damaged read-write heads
  • Defective RAID controller
  • Defect of the server mainboard (integrated RAID controller)
  • Defective PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Hard disk drive circuit board
  • Data loss caused by fire
  • Data loss caused by water
  • Hard drives Firmware error
  • Falling, crash and impact damage
  • Hard disk damages due to natural disasters
  • Head-Crash with hard disk in RAID
  • HDD failure due to wear and tear
  • HDD failure due to overheating
  • Motor damage to hard disk
  • Surface damage of hard disk in RAID
  • Problems with the servomechanism
  • Rebuild for mechanically damaged hard disks
  • Damaged surface within the service area

Symptoms of RAID failure

  • Device I/O error
  • Plate failed
  • No drive
  • Failed hard disk
  • Shares not accessible
  • In degraded read only mode
  • Invalid RAID volume
  • Critical state of the array / composite
  • LED on RAID hard disk red
  • Multiple hard disk failure
  • Network share disappeared 
  • RAID critical
  • RAID offline
  • RAID server beeps, beeps
  • RAID is reported as degraded
  • Server does not start or boot
  • Storage - compound offline
  • Volume crashed / lost
  • volume crashed
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